Extinguishing fires, keeping flames from spreading, and assisting people in escaping fires all require fire safety and protection equipment. Escape ladders are attached to window sills and provide an emergency escape path from a building's higher level. Fire-barrier items (also known as firestops) help to keep fires and smoke from spreading. Small fires can be smothered with fire blankets, or they can be used as a protective cover to shelter someone from a fire. To put out small fires, fire extinguishers spray water or chemical chemicals. For combating major fires, fire hoses and fire hose nozzles connect to a pressurized supply of water or fire retardant. Axes, hammers, pikes, and other fire-fighting instruments are used to tear down walls, poke through roofs, and locate smoldering fires. In the case of a fire, fire-resistant coatings coat surfaces to assist prevent flames from spreading.